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Mini ReviewDOI Number : 10.36811/ijbm.2022.110027Article Views : 0Article Downloads : 1

PHAFFIA RHODOZYMA- SOURCE OF ASTAXANTHIN

Nida Tabassum Khan

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Takatu Campus, Airport Road, Quetta, Balochistan

*Corresponding Author: Nida Tabassum Khan, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences & Informatics, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Takatu Campus, Airport Road, Quetta, Balochistan, Buitems, Phone: 03368164903; Email: [email protected]

Article Information

Aritcle Type: Mini Review

Citation: Nida Tabassum Khan. 2022. PHAFFIA RHODOZYMA- SOURCE OF ASTAXANTHIN. Int J Biol Med. 4: 19-21.

Copyright: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright © 2022; Osama H Aldeeb

Publication history:

Received date: 09 June, 2022
Accepted date: 16 June, 2022
Published date: 18 June, 2022

Abstract

Phaffia rhodozyma is a carotenoid producing fermentative deuteromycete yeast having astaxanthin as the fundamental pigment, it is the most encouraging and natural resource of astaxanthin with an extraordinary application in biotechnology such as use of biosynthetic astaxanthin in the preparation of feeds for aqua cultures

Keywords: Anamorph; Aquaculture; Feed; Carotenoid; Astaxanthin

Introduction

Phaffia rhodozyma isolates were initially obtained from Russia, Chile, Finland, and the United States [1]. Two well-known species appear to exist including anamorph Phaffia rhodozyma and the lagomorph Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous [2]. Because of Phaffia rhodozyma capacity to orchestrate the industrially significant carotenoid astaxanthin, there has been extensive business interest in the development of the yeast as a natural source of carotenoids [3,4]. Phaffia rhodozyma initially known as Rhodozyma montanae appeared orange-red because of the presence of carotenoid shades and which shifted in intensity relying upon the strain [5]. The yeast was perceived to be of basidiomycetous origin in light of its morphology, cell wall formation, bud development, pigmentation, and metabolic properties [6,7]. In addition, it can ferment various sugars including glucose, maltose, sucrose, and raffinose [8]. Phaffia rhodozyma exhibits a dikaryotic mycelium and teleomorphic development, a sexual life cycle was not found [9].

Source of Astaxanthin

Since animals cannot produce carotenoids, Astaxanthin is an important well-known carotenoid utilized as a feed in aquaculture for salmonoid pigmentation [10]. Salmon cultivating is a multibillion-dollar industry that is developing and steadily supplanting the World's wild salmon fisheries [11,12]. The most expensive substance in their feed is astaxanthin, and the estimated market for astaxanthin is >US $10 million annually [13]. Thus, astaxanthin biosynthesis from Phaffia rhodozyma will surely enhance the development of further improved strains [14]. The red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma is considered as a useful source of astaxanthin which has numerous natural properties such as cell reinforcement, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antitumor, stimulating erythrocyte synthesis, elevating ATP generation, increasing yolk meat pigmentation etc [15,16].

The following characteristics of Phaffia rhodozyma for the synthesis of Astaxanthin

Phaffia rhodozyma have most elevated level of astaxanthin in their biomass so by utilizing Phaffia rhodozyma astaxanthin, has the capacity to transform carbon from agroindustrial wastes added into bioproduct that have quick heterotrophic digestion may decreased cultivation time [17].
• Microbial synthesis of astaxanthin utilizing Phaffia rhodozyma requires ideal reaction conditions, like media, temperature, pH etc are key essentials to accomplish high astaxanthin yields [18].
Phaffia rhodozyma can absorb different carbon sources, easy culture and inexpensiveness [19].
Phaffia rhodozyma mediated astaxanthin synthesis function as an antioxidant and is generally utilized in the makeup industry [20].
• Utilizing inactivated yeast in poultry feeds enhances the development and is also a substitute to anti-microbial based drugs [21].
• The whole yeast or their cell wall components have been utilized to impact the morphology, physiology, and microflora of the digestive system of broiler chicken [22].

Conclusion

Phaffia rhodozyma is an anamorphic yeast, an abundant source of carotenoid astaxanthin utilized in the feed industry on large scale to promote growth and in development of poultry and aqua cultures.

References

1. Johnson EA. 2003. Phaffia rhodozyma: colorful odyssey. International Microbiology. 6: 169-174. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12898396/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10123-003- 0130-3
2. Schmidt I, Schewe H, Gassel S. 2011. Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 89: 555-571. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21046372/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010- 2976-6
3. Johnson EA, Lewis MJ. 1979. Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Microbiology. 115: 173-183.
4. Schroeder WA, Johnson EA. 1993. Antioxidant role of carotenoids in Phaffia rhodozyma. Microbiology. 139: 907-912.
5. Kucsera J, Pfeiffer I, Takeo K. 2000. Biology of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma). Mycoscience. 41: 195-199.
6. Mussagy CU, Pereira JF, Dufossé L. 2021. Advances and trends in biotechnological production of natural astaxanthin by Phaffia rhodozyma yeast. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1-15. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34433348/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.19 68788
7. Frengova GI, Beshkova DM. 2009. Carotenoids from Rhodotorula and Phaffia: yeasts of biotechnological importance. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 36: 163. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1898237 0/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295- 008-0492-9
8. Medwid RD. 1998. Phaffia rhodozyma is polyploid. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 21: 228- 232.
9. Andrewes AG, Phaff HJ, Starr MP. 1976. Carotenoids of Phaffia rhodozyma, a redpigmented fermenting yeast. Phytochemistry. 15: 1003-1007.
10. Sedmak JJ, Weerasinghe DK, Jolly SO. 1990. Extraction and quantitation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnology techniques. 4: 107-112.
11. Johnson EA, Lewis MJ. 1979. Astaxanthin formation by the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Microbiology. 115: 173-183.
12. Schmidt I, Schewe H, Gassel S. 2011. Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma / Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 89: 555- 571. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21046372/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010- 2976-6
13. Johnson EA, Villa TG, Lewis MJ. 1980. Phaffia rhodozyma as an astaxanthin source in salmonid diets. Aquaculture. 20: 123- 134.
14. Bon JA, Leathers TD, Jayaswal RK. 1997. Isolation of astaxanthin-overproducing mutants of Phaffia rhodozyma. Biotechnology letters. 19: 109-112.
15. Mussagy CU, Pereira JF, Dufossé L. 2021. Advances and trends in biotechnological production of natural astaxanthin by Phaffia rhodozyma yeast. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1-15. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34433348/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.19 68788
16. Akiba Y, Sato K, Takahashi K. 2001. Meat color modification in broiler chickens by feeding yeast Phaffia rhodozyma containing high concentrations of astaxanthin. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 10: 154-161.
17. Gecim G, Aydin G, Tavsanoglu T. 2021. Review on extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoates and astaxanthin from food and beverage processing wastewater. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 40: 101775.
18. Johnson EA, An GH. 1991. Astaxanthin from microbial sources. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 11: 297-326.
19. Batghare AH, Moholkar VS. 2021. Production of nutraceutical astaxanthin from waste resources. Waste Biorefinery. 181-205.
20. Chandi GK, Gill BS. 2011. Production and characterization of microbial carotenoids as an alternative to synthetic colors: a review. International Journal of Food Properties. 14: 503-513.
21. Elwan HAM, Elnesr SS, Abdallah Y. 2019. Red yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) as a source of Astaxanthin and its impacts on productive performance and physiological responses of poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal. 75: 273-284.
22. Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Takimoto T. 2004. Uptake and distribution of astaxanthin in several tissues and plasma lipoproteins in male broiler chickens fed a yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) with a high concentration of astaxanthin. British poultry science. 45: 133-138. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15115211/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/000716604100016 68950a

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