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Research ArticleDOI Number : 10.36811/jvsr.2021.110016Article Views : 88Article Downloads : 51

Heavy metals in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis: Are they safe as animal feeds?

Chee Kong Yap1*, Wen Siang Tan2,3, Wan Hee Cheng4, Shih Hao Tony Peng5, Chee Wah Yap6, and Mohamad Saupi Ismail7

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Laboratory of Vaccines and Biomolecules, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
5All Cosmos Bio-Tech Holding Corporation, PLO650, Jalan Keluli, Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, 81700 Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia
6MES SOLUTIONS, 22C-1, Jalan BK 5A/2A, Bandar Kinrara, 47100 Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia
7Fisheries Research Institute, Batu Maung, 11960 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author: Chee Kong Yap, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Email: [email protected]; [email protected]

Article Information

Aritcle Type: Research Article

Citation: Chee Kong Yap, Wen Siang Tan, Wan Hee Cheng, et al. 2021. Heavy metals in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis: Are they safe as animal feeds?. J Veterina Sci Res. 3: 54-58.

Copyright: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright © 2021; Chee Kong Yap

Publication history:

Received date: 30 July, 2021
Accepted date: 05 August, 2021
Published date: 09 August, 2021

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the cited data of Cd and Pb levels in the green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) with established maximum limits of both metals by European Union (EU) legislation for animal feeds. It was found that most mussel populations from Malaysia (90% for Cd; 87.5% for Pb) and Hong Kong (96.2% for Cd; 100% for Pb) were found to have lower levels of Cd and Pb than the maximum limits for animal feeds by EU. Therefore, both toxic metals based on the feeds of mussel meats on the animals should not pose serious toxicological effects. However, the meat of P. viridis are potential animal feeds similarly to the fish meal. Considering the accumulation of metals in the long term, future biomonitoring of Cd and Pb should focus on animal feed materials on mussel-based origins.

Keywords: Animal Feed; Mussels; Safety

Introduction

Heavy metal contamination in animal diets has been studied and reported in the literature [1-3]. This was due to the fact that heavy metals like Cd and Pb can be found in most animal meals and feed materials. Toxic metals can come from the environment as well as man-made causes [4,5]. Metal pollutants may be introduced to poultry animals' bodies when they consume polluted animal feed [6]. As a result, the European Union (EU) [7] has rules in place to address the pollution of animal feed and feed materials.

The green-lipped mussel Perna viridis was chosen in this study because this marine mussel species is abundant and widely distributed in Malaysia [8] and Hong Kong [9] coastal waters. Both countries have implemented the Mussel Watch program for biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution in the coastal waters. The objective of this study was to compare the cited data of Cd and Pb levels in P. viridis with established maximum limits of both metals by European Union [7] legislation for animal feeds.

Materials and Methods

The data of Cd and Pb concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of P. viridis were cited from two major publications from Hong Kong and Malaysia. For mussels from Malaysia, the data of both metals of 40 populations (from 20 geographical sampling sites) were cited from [8], collected between 2002-2009. For mussels from Hong Kong, they were cited from [9] of 26 populations (from 5 geographical sampling sites), collected between 1998-2003. Since the maximum limit (content) in mg/kg (ppm) relative to a feed with a moisture content of 12 % for animal feed [7], the cited data were converted into a moisture of 12% by multiplying 0.88 for valid comparison with maximum limits of Cd and Pb.

Results and Discussion

The comparison of Cd and Pb concentrations (mg/kg) in P. viridis from Hong Kong with the maximum limits for feed materials of animal-based origin [7] are presented in Table 1. Out of 26 populations, they was only 1 population (3.8%) exceeded the maximum limit for Cd while all populations were below the maximum limit for Pb.

Table 1: Comparison of Cd and Pb concentrations (mg/kg) in Perna viridis from Hong Kong with the maximum limits for feed materials of animal-based origin (EU, 2013).

Site no.

Location

Cd (dw)

Pb (dw)

Cd (12% moisture)

Pb (12% moisture)

1

Lamma Island, Southern water-1

0.58

13.5

0.51

11.9

 

Lamma Island, Southern water-2

0.45

10.5

0.40

9.24

 

Lamma Island, Southern water-3

0.47

5.50

0.41

4.84

 

Lamma Island, Southern water-4

0.79

5.40

0.70

4.75

2

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-1

2.78

3.30

2.45

2.90

 

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-2

1.01

12.8

0.89

11.3

 

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-3

0.87

12.8

0.77

11.3

 

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-4

1.40

16.0

1.23

14.1

 

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-5

1.38

9.00

1.21

7.92

 

Ma Wan, Tolo Harbour-6

0.82

10.7

0.72

9.42

3

Tai Tam, Hong Kong South-1

0.75

7.70

0.66

6.78

 

Tai Tam, Hong Kong South-2

0.51

9.10

0.45

8.01

 

Tai Tam, Hong Kong South-3

0.66

12.2

0.58

10.7

 

Tai Tam, Hong Kong South-4

0.86

13.0

0.76

11.4

4

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-1

0.27

2.10

0.24

1.85

 

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-2

0.42

3.80

0.37

3.34

 

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-3

0.43

2.50

0.38

2.20

 

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-4

0.37

3.10

0.33

2.73

 

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-4

0.42

3.80

0.37

3.34

 

Tsim Sha Tsui, Victoria Harbour-5

0.46

5.50

0.40

4.84

5

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-1

0.26

6.40

0.23

5.63

 

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-2

0.20

8.80

0.18

7.74

 

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-3

0.25

7.90

0.22

6.95

 

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-4

0.19

5.90

0.17

5.19

 

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-5

0.18

3.20

0.16

2.82

 

Wu Kai Sha, Tolo Harbour-6

0.24

4.40

0.21

3.87

 

Feed materials of animal origin (EU, 2013)

-

-

2.00

15.0

 

Populations exceeded maximum limit

-

-

1

0

Note: Data cited from [9]. Data were converted to mg/kg 12% moisture by multiplying 0.88. Values in bold showed the values exceeded the maximum limit.

The comparison of Cd and Pb concentrations (mg/kg) in P. viridis from Malaysia with the maximum limits for feed materials of animal-based origin [7] are presented in Table 2. Out of 40 populations, they were 4 (10%) and 5 (12.5%) populations exceeded the maximum limits for Cd and Pb, respectively.

Table 2: Comparison of Cd and Pb concentrations (mg/kg) in Perna viridis from Malaysia with the maximum limits for feed materials of animal-based origin (EU, 2013).

Site no.

Location

Cd (dw)

Pb (dw)

Cd (12% moisture)

Pb (12% moisture)

1

Penang Bridge, Penang-1

0.94

15.9

0.83

13.9

 

Penang Bridge, Penang-2

1.72

5.97

1.51

5.25

 

Penang Bridge, Penang-3

0.40

9.39

0.35

8.26

2

Bagan Tiang, Perak-1

0.68

7.02

0.60

6.18

3

Pasir Panjang, Negeri Sembilan

0.97

4.61

0.85

4.06

4

Telok Emas, Malacca-1

1.93

8.28

1.70

7.29

 

Telok Emas, Malacca-2

0.46

1.98

0.40

1.74

5

Merlimau, Malacca-1

1.67

4.68

1.47

4.12

6

Sebatu, Malacca-1

0.35

7.10

0.31

6.25

7

Minyak Beku, Johore-1

1.11

8.39

0.98

7.38

 

Minyak Beku, Johore-2

0.40

5.79

0.35

5.10

8

Parit Jawa, Johore-1

3.15

13.9

2.77

12.3

9

Senggarang, Johore-1

1.83

61.0

1.61

53.7

10

Kukup, Johore-1

2.22

4.63

1.95

4.07

 

Kukup, Johore-2

1.20

6.81

1.06

5.99

 

Kukup, Johore-3

1.44

3.63

1.27

3.19

11

Tg Kupang, Johore-1

1.40

11.6

1.23

10.2

 

Tg Kupang, Johore-2

0.83

1.63

0.73

1.43

12

Gelang Patah, Johore-1

2.04

7.55

1.80

6.64

13

Kg Sg Melayu, Johore-1

1.35

13.2

1.19

11.6

 

Kg Sg Melayu, Johore-2

0.96

23.8

0.84

20.9

 

Kg Sg Melayu, Johore-3

1.57

6.91

1.38

6.08

14

Pantai Lido, Johore-1

1.08

10.8

0.95

9.50

 

Pantai Lido, Johore-2

1.08

10.8

0.95

9.50

 

Pantai Lido, Johore-3

0.38

7.67

0.33

6.75

 

Pantai Lido, Johore-4

0.98

1.57

0.86

1.38

15

Senibong, Johore-1

1.17

6.43

1.03

5.66

 

Senibong, Johore-2

1.29

8.73

1.14

7.68

 

Senibong, Johore-3

1.79

3.71

1.58

3.26

16

Telok Jawa, Johore-1

1.69

13.9

1.49

12.2

17

Kg Sg Masai, Johore-1

1.67

7.63

1.47

6.71

 

Kg Sg Masai, Johore-2

1.73

9.26

1.52

8.15

18

Kg Pasir Puteh, Johore-1

2.71

22.5

2.38

19.8

 

Kg Pasir Puteh, Johore-2

2.71

22.7

2.38

19.9

 

Kg Pasir Puteh, Johore-3

1.79

31.9

1.58

28.1

 

Kg Pasir Puteh, Johore-4

1.80

8.85

1.58

7.79

 

Kg Pasir Puteh, Johore-5

2.61

5.21

2.30

4.58

19

Nenasi, Pahang (Nes-1)

2.23

9.69

1.96

8.53

20

Kuala Pontian, Pahang-1

1.96

10.2

1.72

8.98

 

Kuala Pontian, Pahang-2

1.62

3.88

1.43

3.41

 

Feed materials of animal origin (EU, 2013)

-

-

2.00

15.0

 

Populations exceeded maximum limit

 

 

4

5

Note: Data cited from [8]. Data were converted to mg/kg 12% moisture by multiplying 0.88. Values in bold showed the values exceeded the maximum limit.

Because some populations in Malaysia and Hong Kong surpassed the maximum Cd and Pb limits, the toxicological impacts of both harmful metals on animals should be taken seriously. However, toxicological effects on animals are expected to be lessened because animal feeds are often composed of a variety of ingredients, and mussel feed may contain up to 50% mussel meal, for example, giving a 7% mussel meal diet to a typical laying hen for egg production [10,11]. Jonsson and Elwinger have previously examined and advocated mussel meal as a fish meal substitute in organic poultry feeding (2009). As a result, the meat of P. viridis, like fish meal, could be employed as a possible animal feed, and more toxicological research is needed.

Conclusions

In conclusion, most mussel populations in Malaysia (90 percent for Cd; 87.5 percent for Pb) and Hong Kong (96.2 percent for Cd; 100 percent for Pb) had lower levels of Cd and Pb than the EU's maximum limits for animal feeds [7]. As a result, both hazardous metals derived from mussel meat feeds on animals should not have major toxicological effects. However, mussel meal, like fish meal, has the potential to be used as animal feed. Given the long-term buildup of metals, future Cd and Pb biomonitoring should concentrate on animal feed materials derived from mussels due to the toxicological effects of both toxic metals on animals.

References

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2. Li Y, McCrory DF, Powell JM. 2005. A survey of selected heavy metal concentrations in Wisconsin dairy feeds. J Dairy Sci. 88: 2911-2922. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16027206/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(05)72972-6

3. Dai SY, Jones B, Lee KM. 2016. Heavy Metal Contamination of Animal Feed in Texas. Journal of Regulatory Science. 1: 21-32.

4. FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). 1983. Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products. FAO fishery circular. 464: 5-100.

5. USFDA (United States Food and Drug Adminstration). 2001. Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance. Appendix 5—FDA & EPA safety levels in regulations and guidance, third edition.

6. Adamse P, Van der Fels-Klerx HJ, de Jong J. 2017. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 34: 1298-1311. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28278122/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2017.1300686

7. EU (European Union). 2013. COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1275/2013 of 6 December 2013. Amending Annex I to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum levels for arsenic, cadmium, lead, nitrites, volatile mustard oil and harmful botanical impurities. Official Journal of the European Union.

8. Yap CK, Cheng WH, Ali K. 2016. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites. Science of the Total Environment. 553: 285-296. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26925739/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.092

9. Liu JH, Kueh CSW. 2005. Biomonitoring of heavy metals and trace organics using the intertidal mussel Perna viridis in Hong Kong coastal waters. Mar Pollut Bull. 51: 857-875. Ref.: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15907944/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.04.014

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