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Research ArticleDOI Number : 10.36811/jvsr.2021.110018Article Views : 84Article Downloads : 32

Study the Haematological parameters and Oxidative stress before and after disbudding in Calves

Shiv Swaroop1*, Pramanik PS1, Singh KD2, Subodh Kumar2 and Verma AK2

1Department of Livestock Production Management, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya- 224229, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Livestock Farm Complex, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya - 224229, Uttar Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: Shiv Swaroop, Department of Livestock Production Management, India, Tel: 9936709777; 08004067773; Email: [email protected] 

Article Information

Aritcle Type: Research Article

Citation: Shiv Swaroop, Pramanik PS, Singh KD. 2021. Study the Haematological parameters and Oxidative stress before and after disbudding in Calves. J Veterina Sci Res. 3: 62-69.

Copyright: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright © 2021; Shiv Swaroop

Publication history:

Received date: 01 November, 2021
Accepted date: 15 November, 2021
Published date: 17 November, 2021

Abstract

The aim of the present investigation was to examine the haematological profile and oxidative stress before and after disbudding in calves. The study was carried out at Livestock Farm Complex, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya and nearby villages. Twenty four cattle calves were utilized to study haematological parameters that are Haemoglobin (Hb (gm/dl), Neutrophil (%), Basophil (%), PCV (%), Lymphocyte (%), Monocyte (%), TLC (103/ µl), Eosinophil (%), N/L ratio) and oxidative stress before and after disbudding in to four groups viz. control (T0), lignocaine (TL), tremadol (TT) and lignocaine+tremadol (TL-T). After medication calves were disbudded by hot iron method. The blood samples were collected for haematological parameters & for estimation of LPO (lipid peroxides) as per method described by [1] just before (0h) and after disbudding on 6h, 24h and 72h. The results showed that, at 24h, T0 group showed significantly lowest Hb (10.66±0.49%) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups. At 0h, 6h and 72h means of PCV% were significantly different among treatment groups. The lowest lymphocytes (64.00±1.00) was observed in TT group at 6h. The T0 group showed significantly lowest basophil (0.00±0.00) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups but significantly different from TL group at 6h. At the same interval, T0 group showed significantly lowest monocytes (4.66±0.61) which was significantly different with TL, TT and TL-T groups. At 6h, T0 group showed significantly lowest N/ L ratio (0.15±0.01) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups but significantly different from TL group. At 0h, 6h and 24h LPO was significantly different among groups. At 0h, T0 group showed significantly highest (106.59±0.63) which was significantly different from TL, TT and TL-T groups. It may be concluded that no significant difference was observed in eosinophil%, TLC, neutrophil% and monocyte% counts between control and treatment groups. However, Hb%, basophil%, PCV% and lymphocyte% were significantly different between control and treatment groups. N/L ratio was significant only at 6h. Most of the cases TL-T group showed comparatively better performance. At 0h, 6h and 24h LPO was significantly different among groups. At 0h, T0 group showed significantly highest (106.59±0.63) which was significantly different from TL, TT and TL-T groups.

Introduction

Disbudding is painful yet common husbandry practice in the cattle industry, especially on dairy farms, because hornless cattle are safer [2] and injuries to cattle and other animals are reduced [3]. Dehorned cattle are safer to handle and cause fewer injuries to workers, other cattle, and farm animals [4]. Cattle are also dehorned to reduce bruising and hide damage and to meet transport requirements [3,5,6]. Several disbudding methods exist, including cautery, the use of caustic paste, and hot iron. All of these methods involve tissue damage and have been described as painful [4,7]. The Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals: Cattle, however, strongly advises against caustic disbudding [8]. Despite this knowledge, dehorning is commonly performed without pain relief because of the costs and impracticalities associated with researched methods [9]. The breeding of polled cattle eliminates the need for dehorning and because horns are inherited as an autosomal recessive with polledness being dominant [10], The legislation pertaining to dehorning and disbudding differ between countries like in Sweden, disbudding without local anaesthesia and sedation was banned in the 1992 Animal Rights Act [11], but calves may be dehorned in Denmark without local anaesthesia until they are 4 weeks of age [12]. The Council of Europe recommends the use of anesthesia for the dehorning of calves over 4 wk of age [13]. Pain control is also required for all calves under the Canadian Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle [14]. Furthermore, the Australian Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals: Cattle recommends the use of local analgesics for dehorning calves over 6 month of age [8]. Thus, the need to meet industry standards and the availability of suitable dehorning pain relief regimens for commercial production remain a challenge. Very little work has been done on the disbudding distress in Indian dairy animals particularly in indigenous animals.

Materials and Methods

The aim of the present investigation was to examine the hematological response and oxidative stress before and after disbudding in calves. Study was carried out at the Instructional Livestock Farm Complex of the college of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, ANDUAT, Kumarganj, Ayodhya and around the campus. Twenty four (24) farm born cattle calves of 2 to 3 weeks were randomly divided into four groups within each comprising of 3 males and 3 females, Control (T0), Lignocaine hydrochloride (2%) @ 1 ml/ bud (TL) (Tramadol @ 0.25 mg/ kg body weight I/M) (TT) and Lignocaine + Tramadol at above dose rate ( TL-T). Medication was done 5-10 minutes before disbudding. Two doses of ligocaine per bud were injected for cornual nerve block in calves.

(a) Haematological parameters

Haematological responses recorded before and after disbudding were as follows

a) Hb (gm/dl)

d) Neutrophil (%)

g) Basophil (%)

b) PCV (%)

e) Lymphocyte (%)

h) Monocyte (%)

c) TLC (103/ μl)

f) Eosinophil (%)

i) N/L ratio

Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical parameters just before (0h) and after disbudding on 6h, 24h and 72h.

(b) Oxidative stress

Blood were collected before and after disbudding (0, 6 and 24hr.) and hemolysate were prepared just after collection for estimation of LPO (lipid peroxides) as per method described by [1].

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis of data was done by using SPSS 20.0 software. The data obtained were subjected to variance (ANOVA) and mean were compared using Ducan’s Multiple Range Test.

Results and Discussion

The studies were made on haematological parameters and oxidative stress during the first 72h of disbudding. The data collected and analyzed for results which are being summarized under following headings and sub-headings:

(a) Haematological parameters

Results on different haematological parameters have been shown as below:

Heamoglobin (Hb)

The least squares mean of haemoglobin (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 1. At 24h and 72h Hb were significantly different among treatment groups.

At 24h, T0 group showed significantly lowest Hb (10.66±0.49%) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups but significantly different from TL groups however, [15] found that there was no treatment or sampling time effects for the remaining blood measurements. Packed Cell Volume (PCV)

The least squares mean of packed cell volume (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 1. At 0h, 6h and 72h means of PCV% were significantly different among treatment groups. At 0h, T0 group showed significantly lowest PCV (31.83±0.40) which was statistically similar to TL-T group but significantly different from TL and TT groups. At 6h, T0 group showed significantly lowest PCV (30.33±0.84) but significantly different from TL, TT and TL-T groups. At 72h, T0 group showed significantly lowest PCV (31.50±0.72) which was statistically similar to TL and TT groups but significantly different from TL-T group however, [15] found that there was no treatment or sampling time effects for the remaining blood measurements.

Total Leucocytes Count (TLC)

The least squares mean of total leukocytes count (103/µl) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in table 1. There was no significant different in TLC among different treatment groups during the whole period of study which is similar to the finding of [15].

Neutrophil (N)

The least squares mean of neutrophil (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 2. There was no significant different in neutrophil among different treatment groups during the whole period of study however, [15] observed that the percentage of circulating neutrophil was greatest (p<0.05) at 12 h with saline- and 2% lidocaine-treated animals.

Table 1: Least squares mean of Hb(%), PCV(%) and TLC(%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatments.

 

Treatments

Time intervals

0 h

6th h

24th h

72nd h

 Heamoglobin (Hb)

Control (T0)

11.16±0.30

10.16±0.30

10.66a ±0.49

11.16a ±0.30

Lignocaine (TL)

11.67±0.21

10.83±0.31

12.00b ±0.00

11.83ab ±0.31

Tramadol (TT)

11.64±0.19

10.83±0.30

11.33ab ±0.32

11.33ab ±0.21

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

11.50±0.22

11.00±0.00

11.16ab ±0.17

12.00b ±0.00

 Packed Cell Volume (PCV)

Control (T0)

31.83a ±0.40

30.33a ±0.84

31.67±0.61

31.50a ±0.72

Lignocaine (TL)

34.00b ±0.73

32.83ab ±0.79

33.83±0.75

33.83ab ±0.75

Tramadol (TT)

33.83b ±0.75

32.16b ±0.90

33.67±1.20

33.17a ±1.10

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

32.67ab ±0.21

32.66b ±0.21

32.17±0.54

35.66b ±0.33

 Total Leucocytes Count (TLC)

Control (T0)

7.33±0.42

6.67±0.33

7.50±0.34

7.83±0.54

Lignocaine (TL)

7.50±0.34

7.68±0.34

7.67±0.33

7.66±0.33

Tramadol (TT)

7.66±0.33

6.67±0.42

6.66±0.67

8.00±0.00

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

6.83±0.65

7.01±0.68

7.33±0.42

7.67±0.33

Means with different superscripts in a column differ significantly (p<0.05).

Eosinophil (E)

The least squares mean of eosinophil (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in table 2. There was no significant different in eosinophil among different treatment groups during the whole period of study which is similar to the finding of Doherty, et al. (2007).

Basophil (B)

The least squares mean of basophil (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in table 3.

Lymphocytes (L):

The least squares mean of lymphocytes (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 2. There was significantly different only at 6h among different treatment groups. At 6h lowest lymphocytes (64.00±1.00) was observed in TT group which was statistically similar with TL-T group but significantly differed with TL and TT groups however, Doherty, et al. (2007) found that there was no treatment or sampling time effects for the remaining blood measurements.

Table 2: Least squares mean of Neutrophils (%) Lymphocytes (%) and Eosinophil (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatments.

 

Treatments

Time intervals

0 h

6th h

24th h

72nd h

 Neutrophil (N)

Control (T0)

20.66±0.31

10.50±0.50

10.16±0.40

19.32±1.89

Lignocaine (TL)

20.50±0.80

15.16±1.64

13.50±1.40

22.00±0.73

Tramadol (TT)

19.66±0.32

12.67±1.68

12.31±1.20

20.31±0.61

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

20.50±0.34

13.33±1.83

13.00±1.61

21.00±0.44

 Lymphocytes (L)

Control (T0)

64.00±1.48

69.50b ±0.96

67.33±1.52

66.83±0.87

Lignocaine (TL)

65.00±1.36

65.67a ±1.17

67.34±1.12

66.00±1.26

Tramadol (TT)

62.67±0.88

64.00a ±1.00

66.33±1.41

65.66±1.40

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

64.34±1.52

66.83ab ±0.91

65.67±0.92

68.65±0.42

 Eosinophil (E)

Control (T0)

11.83±0.47

10.66±0.67

11.50±1.40

10.50±0.80

Lignocaine (TL)

11.00±0.36

11.00±0.89

11.00±0.73

10.33±0.80

Tramadol (TT)

11.83±0.40

10.83±0.40

12.50±1.14

11.83±1.40

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

12.00±0.25

11.83±0.16

11.50±0.22

11.00±0.63

Means with different superscripts in a column differ significantly (p<0.05).

There was significantly different only at 6h among different treatment groups. At 6h, T0 group showed significantly lowest basophil (0.00±0.00) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups but significantly different from TL group however, [15] found that there was no treatment or sampling time effects for the remaining blood measurements.

Monocytes (M)

The least squares mean of monocytes (%) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 3. There was significantly different only at 6h among different treatment groups. At 6h, T0 group showed significantly lowest monocytes (4.66±0.61) which was significantly different with TL, TT and TL-T groups however, [15] found that there was no treatment or sampling time effects for the remaining blood measurements.

N/ L Ratio (N/L)

The least squares mean of N/ L ratio of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in table 3. There was significantly different only at 6h among different treatment groups. At 6h, T0 group showed significantly lowest N/ L ratio (0.15±0.01) which was statistically similar to TT and TL-T groups but significantly different from TL group however, [15] observed that the neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was greatest (P<0.001) at 12 h with saline- and 2% lidocaine-treated animals.

Table 3: Least squares mean of Basophil (%), Monocytes (%) and N/ L Ratio of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatments

 

Treatments

Time intervals

0 h

6th h

24th h

72nd h

 Basophil (B)

Control (T0)

0.16 ± 0.16

0.00a±0.00

0.16±0.16

0.50±0.22

Lignocaine (TL)

0.00±0.00

0.67b±0.33

0.34±0.21

0.17±0.16

Tramadol (TT)

0.50±0.22

0.16ab±0.16

0.00±0.00

0.50±0.22

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

0.33±0.21

0.00a±0.00

0.33±0.21

0.00±0.00

 Monocytes (M)

Control (T0)

5.83±0.54

4.66a±0.61

6.00±0.44

6.00±0.52

Lignocaine (TL)

5.67±0.62

6.34b±0.62

7.00±0.68

6.33±0.34

Tramadol (TT)

6.33±0.31

7.32b±0.42

6.66±0.67

5.68±0.32

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

5.32±0.30

6.33b±0.33

6.17±0.54

6.00±0.56

 N/ L Ratio (N/L)

Control (T0)

0.31±0.01

0.15a±0.01

0.15±0.01

0.29±0.03

Lignocaine (TL)

0.32±0.00

0.23b±0.03

0.20±0.02

0.33±0.01

Tramadol (TT)

0.31±0.01

0.19ab±0.02

0.18±0.02

0.31±0.01

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

0.32±0.01

0.19ab±0.02

0.19±0.03

0.31±0.01

Means with different superscripts in a column differ significantly (p<0.05).

(b) Oxidative Stress

Table 4: Least squares mean of LPO of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatments.

Treatments          

Time intervals

0 h

6th h

24th h

Control (T0)

106.59a±0.63

110.67a±0.46

157.53a±1.8

Lignocaine (TL)

94.04b±0.22

89.28b±0.50

104.71b±0.29

Tramadol (TT)

92.43c±0.39

92.14c±0.40

108.45c±0.40

Lignocaine + Tramadol (TL-T)

104.68d±0.22

95.58d±0.18

76.84d±0.19

Means with different superscripts in a column differ significantly (p<0.05).

The least squares mean of lipid peroxide (nmolemda/ ml) of cattle calves at different intervals in different treatment groups have been shown in Table 4. At 0h, 6h and 24h LPO was significantly different among groups. At 0h, T0 group showed significantly highest (106.59±0.63) which was significantly different from TL, TT and TL-T groups.

Conclusion

On the basis of results obtained from present study it may be concluded that, there is no significant difference was observed in eosinophil%, TLC, neutrophil% and monocyte% counts between control and treatment groups. However, Hb%, basophil%, PCV% and lymphocyte% were significantly different between control and treatment groups. N/L ratio was significant only at 6h. Most of the cases TL-T group showed comparatively better performance. Whereas, LPO was significantly higher in control group than treatment groups.

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