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Case BlogDOI Number : 10.36811/ojrmi.2021.110012Article Views : 3Article Downloads : 1

International Radiographers in British Universities: A Case Study

Abdulwahab Alahmari

Radiology Specialist, Radiology Department, Al-Namas General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Al-Namas City, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Abdulwahab Alahmari, Radiology Specialist, Radiology Department, Al-Namas General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Tel: +966562428716; Email: afaa99@hotmail.co.uk 

Article Information

Aritcle Type: Case Blog

Citation: Abdulwahab Alahmari. 2021. International Radiographers in British Universities: A Case Study. O J Radio Med Img. 4: 10-16.

Copyright: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright © 2021; Abdulwahab Alahmari

Publication history:

Received date: 26 December, 2020
Accepted date: 15 January, 2021
Published date: 03 February, 2021

Abstract

Many British universities offer radiographic reporting programs, but these programs are designed to allow British citizens only to join those programs. Usually, these programs are a part-time and those programs use the “spoon-feeding education” approach which is not the same approach that used with international students. Usually, internationals allowed to join self−learning programs that make unqualified radiographers who will not be able to pass any examination from any medical registry organization worldwide. Usually, these post−graduate programs use distance learning, self-learning, no exams, no GPA, no score, and continues assessment approach. All the programs that international students can join, are non-Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) accredited programs. If these programs had an accreditation, the graduates will be able to work in the United Kingdom to fill the shortage of Reporting Radiographers. Due to the discriminatory regulations by British university against international applicants, they could not join any good accredited program.

Keywords: Discrimination; International Students; Radiographic Reporting; Admission, Education

Introduction

Radiographic reporting is a new advanced practice for the radiographers in the United Kingdom. The only country in the world that offers such courses is the United Kingdom. Most of the Radiographers-worldwide-if they want to learn radiographic reporting, they have to study in the United Kingdom because it’s the only country in the world that allows radiographic reporting for Radiographers. Therefore, this paper aims to study 10 British universities that offer Radiographic reporting programs to see if there are any discriminatory regulations against international students. The conditions and the criteria are collected from the official programs’ websites.

Methodology

A Google search for the words “radiographic reporting” for available programs in the 2021. A random selection of the top 10 results were analyzed. Their conditions, criteria, and fee were collected from the universities’ website for British, European, international citizens. The data will be interpreted and provided.

Case Studies

Brighton and Sussex Medical School (case 1)

The collaboration between Brighton University and Sussex University which named Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) allowed them to offer a master’s program called M.Sc. in Clinical Radiology [1]. This program accepts only British and European citizens who have an experience in the United Kingdom for two years; even though; the United Kingdom left the European Union. Radiographers out of this region can’t join this program even if they have an experience in the UK for two years and a registration with the HCPC. There is no English language requirement for the European citizens even if English language is not their mother tongue language. In addition, the fee is £8,262 for British/European citizens, while any fee for post-graduate international students taught program in BSMS is £15,156. Both universities, provide a range of scholarship opportunities for British/European students that can waive 60% of the fee, while international students must pay a high price for regular programs that has no accreditation or future. This program is not allowed for international Radiographers to apply for.

Cardiff University (case 2)

This university offers a master program named M.Sc. in Radiography [2]; even though; the students are studying radiographic reporting not radiography. This program has no accreditation from the HCPC, but their post-graduate certificate (PgCert) program in radiographic reporting has an accreditation from HCPC. The names of both programs show the type of care that Cardiff University staff give to local radiographer where they use the right name “radiographic reporting”, while the master’s program named “Radiography” which has nothing to do with what the students are studying and learning. Radiographic reporting is making a report for a radiograph and radiography is making a radiograph (manipulate exposure factors and positioning the patient) which the university do not teach in the M.Sc. curriculum according to the program website. The certificate program, allows the graduate to learn and practice to become a Reporting Radiographer. In the same time, the radiography program has no accreditation, less reporting modules, higher fee for international applicants, and no international student is allowed to have a practical experience or clinical training in Cardiff University or in the university’s hospital. The tuition for international students for the master’s degree is £21,950 plus £1000 as deposit, while local students pay £7,700 and no deposit is required. The required IELTS score is 7 for internationals.

Robert Gordon University (case 3)

They offer a post-graduate certificate named PgCert in Diagnostic Image Reporting [3]. This course is a part-time which means international students is difficult to have a visa for a part-time program. The university offers easy flexible options for the local students by studying the program in 2 years and in blended learning format (distance learning and on campus). Moreover, they offer this course for small amount of money which can cost for the whole course a £2,800 for the British citizens. The evaluation is done by testing students to write a 3000-word essay which is an old testing method that has been proven to be not objective that do not work like multiple choice question (MCQ). They mention on their website the Scotland’s Allied Health Profession (AHP) National Delivery Plan where the Scottish Government encourage maximizing the workforce especially the Reporting Radiographers and allow them to have an educational support [4]. Did Robert Gordon University support and allowed international radiographers to make that stated educational support in the Scottish initiative to become a reality? Did they allow the qualified international radiographers to work to help in the healthcare crisis in Scotland? Furthermore, some Scottish universities like Queen Margret University prefer to restart all over and re-teach anyone a Master’s Degree of Diagnostic Radiography (MDRad) with one condition which is to have a bachelor degree in another field (not radiography) then they teach the student basic radiography. Instead of teaching a qualified radiographer how to report radiographs (which is the issue that Scotland faces which is the shortage of radiologists and the delay of radiology reports more than 6 months), they teach something that they do not have a shortage in and they do not accept any qualified international Radiographer. This explains why in Scotland they face this issue. Furthermore, Robert Gordon University have a similar program named Master Degree of of Diagnostic Radiography (MDRad). Both MDRad programs are 4 year-long and both universities (RGU& QMU) are disconnected with the issue that they face in Scotland.

University of Hertfordshire (case 4)

This university offers many radiography/radiographic reporting masters programs and all of them they do not have any accreditation from the HCPC [5]. They offer a master’s program called Advanced Medical Imaging which used to be Diagnostic Imaging and the university keeps changing the name regularly which make confusion to the graduates and employers. The university does not offer a clinical placement for the international Radiographers and does not allow internationals to enroll in any program that has an accreditation by the HCPC like the M.Sc. in Image Interpretation program. Furthermore, this program does not have an accreditation from most foreign countries because they use the continues assessment method in the master’s degree (i.e., not test and no exams whatsoever). Many countries prohibit sending their students to this program like Saudi Arabia and the rest of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries because they know this program is a fraud. The only students can join this program are internationals only and no local British students is allowed to join this fraudulent program. They charge international students for this fraudulent program £15,250 and the required IELTS score is 7.

University of Bradford (case 5)

This university offers a master’s degree in Advanced Clinical Practitioner (Radiographic Reporting) in 3 years as a part-time program [6]. The applicant must be registered with the HCPC, works in a British-based hospital, and to have a mentor. The IELTS test score required is 6.5. The average tuition for British citizens is £5,202 and the international is £12,227 per year. To calculate the master program fee, multiply the tuition of one year in three.

Teesside University (case 6)

They offer a master’s degree in Forensic Radiography for British students online from 1-3 years as a part-time study [7]. This program tuition is £680 per each 20 credits and the master programs is cost around £5,900 for British citizens and international students are not allowed in this program.

Glasgow Caledonian University (case 7)

Like all Scottish university, this university is disconnected from reality [8]. This university offers a master’s degree in Diagnostic Imaging in (CT, MRI, ultrasound) with some interpretation modules, but it is not considered a reporting program. The university does not offer all the information on their website and to get all the information, the international student needs to ask someone inside the university. For example, the processional English course does not require to re-take IELTS exam after finishing, but they have other exams inside the INTO program called “ELA test INTO Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU)”. The exam is not mentioned on their website and the international students are tricked to go to the United Kingdom to study then be surprised with this exam which could make them lose their study offers and scholarships. The GCU still works with INTO company which is worldwide predatory organization that makes money-in a greedy way-from the international students as much as they can. The master’s program cost British/European citizens £7,000, while it cost internationals £14,500 (more than the double). The tuition for the English language program is more expensive than the master’s program and it vary among students.

London south bank university (case 8)

They offer a distance learning/part-time master program for three to six years called M.Sc. in Diagnostic Imaging [9]. This reporting program offers too many mammography and breast imaging modules and test their students in a conventional methods “writing an essay” which is an objective method and it can’t be graded. They required an IELTS score of 7 with no element below 7 in all category which is more strict even than the HCPC required criteria for international Radiographers. The program cost per year for British students a £3,555, while it cost international students a £4,823.33. To calculate the fee multiple the numbers in 3 or how long (in years) the student will take to finish this master degree. All these conditions, will make international students look for another university. Plus, this program has no accreditation with the HCPC. They have an accreditation for the master in Therapeutic Radiography, but no accreditation for the Diagnostic Imaging program from the HCPC.

University of Derby (case 9)

This university offers a post-graduate certificate called PgCert in Image Reporting as a part-time program for British/European applicants [10]. The international students can’t join this program and the fee is affordable for British/European citizens (i.e. £ 900 per 20 credit which means £2,700 in total for the PgCert). The students must have a registration with the HCPC and they must have a mentor.

Birmingham City University (case 10)

They offer a master’s degree and many PgCerts that have interpretation modules [11]. This program is allowed for British and European students. It’s a 3-year and part-time program. This program has accreditation from the HCPC. The international students can’t join this program.

Discussion

The United Kingdom left the European Union and many European skilled workers left the Great Britain, but the British universities still provide exceptions for European students even if they do speak English fluently see (Table 1). There are 5 programs of the 10 programs in this study, do not ask for English language requirements and treat the European students like British students. These major exceptions are not given to the international students. Furthermore, English is not the mother language in all Europe. If the British universities argue that they give these easy conditions for European because they will stay in the United Kingdom, the British universities can’t grantee for 100% that they will stay. Actually, many European work force left or stopped coming to the United Kingdom after the Brexit [12]. All the European Union countries, do not speak English as their first language, but most of the British programs in this study do not even ask for a language test for the European students. As well, if the British universities are given financial support to the European students and the United Kingdom is not part of the European Union and they can’t grantee that the European students will work in the United Kingdom after graduation, so what is the point from all of these free services? Meanwhile, the international students which are similar to the European students (all have different mother language and all are not British citizens), they do not receive similar easy conditions and financial support. Nobody can grantee that international students will stay or leave the United Kingdom after graduation. The British law allow students to stay for two years after graduation to find a job [13], but with these non-accredited programs, the chance for international students to find a job is very low. Its crystal clear that British universities discriminate against international students in a way that oppose and contradict the British law. Most of the British universities do not even allow international students to join most of the programs in the first place see (Table 1). When international students join a program, most of the British universities ask for high tuition with average (among these 10 universities in this study) of £ 19,834 see (Table 1). The British universities offer programs that has no accreditation and even the British students are not even allowed to apply to these programs. For example, Hertfordshire University have a program that does not meet with any educational standards whatsoever to the point where they prevent British citizens from joining this program. The university does not provide accreditation, training, exams, or even a good education. This program is not accepted in many countries worldwide. The British universities always target the 3rd world low-income students with these programs that will set them for failure. When a British University offers a good program, they set very harsh admission conditions and high tuitions that most of the international students can’t afford. The spoon-feeding method is mostly used in the programs that allowed for the British/European students, while international students’ programs is used distance learning, self-learning, blended learning, etc. The used type of exams in the programs that allowed for British/European is MCQ, written exam, poster, essay, oral exams, presentation, clinical evaluation during clinical placement by selected mentors who have been selected by the university, etc. The testing methods used for internationals’ programs is mainly continues assessment and homework. This shows how these universities deeply practice discrimination on a massive scale. This case study shows there is an institutionalized discrimination against international students in terms of the admission conditions, tuitions, join an accredited program to secure their future by finding a job after graduating from an accredited program, ability to get the HCPC registration, ability to work in the Britain, etc.

Table 1: A summary of all cases.

University name

British fee

In £

International

Fee

In £

British can join

International

Can join

HCPC accreditation

IELTS score needed

Brighton and Sussex Medical School [1]

8,262

15,156

Yes

No

Yes

N/A

Cardiff University [2]

7,700

22,950

Yes any program

No only M.Sc.

Yes for PgCert

No for M.Sc.

7

Robert Gordon University [3]

2,800

N/A

Yes any program

Not allowed

Yes for both PgCert & M.Sc.

 

N/A

University of Hertfordshire [5]

N/A

15,250

Not allowed

Yes

No

7

University of Bradford  [6]

15,606

36,681

Allowed to join any program

If they are UK-based, Have HCPC registration, have a mentor, work in UK hospital.

From outside the UK no

Yes

6.5

Teesside University [7]

5,900

N/A

Yes

No

No

N/A

Glasgow Caledonian University [8]

7,000

14,500

Yes

Yes

Yes

6.5

London South Bank University [9]

10,665

14,469

Yes

Yes

No

7

University of Derby [10]

2,700

N/A

Yes

No

Yes

N/A

Birmingham City University [11]

8,100

N/A

Yes

No

Yes

N/A

Highest

15,606

22,950

9 = Yes

7 = No

8 = Yes

7

Lowest

2,700

14,469

1 = No

5 = Yes

4 = No

6.5

Average / comment

13,746.6

19,834.33

9/10 allowed

No = 7,

Yes with conditions = 5

Programs target the British = yes,

Programs target the internationals = No

Average 7,

European students do not have to take IELTS

Conclusion

Most of the British universities who offer radiographic reporting programs show bias and discrimination against international students to prevent them from learning, practicing, or working in the United Kingdom which is against the British law and humans’ rights to get education and to work. The United Kingdom faces a health crisis in radiology reporting all across the United Kingdom and most of the British universities are disconnected with the reality.

References

1. Brighton and Sussex Medical School. 2020. Clinical Radiology-BSMS [Internet]. Bsms.ac.uk.

2. Cardiff University. 2020. Radiography (MSc) (full time) (18 months) [Internet]. School of Healthcare Sciences.

3. Robert Gordon University. 2020. Diagnostic Image Reporting Course with PgCert | RGU University -Aberdeen, Scotland, UK | RGU [Internet]. Rgu.ac.uk.

4. Scottish Government. 2020. Allied Health Professions National Delivery Plan 2012-2015 - Progress Report [Internet]. Gov.scot.

5. University of Hertfordshire. 2020. Wozzad [Internet]. Applycpd.com.

6. University of Bradford. 2020. Advanced Clinical Practitioner (Radiographic Reporting) [Internet]. Bradford.ac.uk.

7. Teesside University. 2020. Forensic Radiography, PgCert/MSc, course | Postgraduate study | Teesside University [Internet]. Tees.ac.uk.

8. Glasgow Caledonian University, 2020. Welcome To GCU: The University for The Common Good. [online] Gcu.ac.uk.

9. London South Bank University. 2020. Diagnostic Imaging [Internet]. London South Bank University.

10. University of Derby. 2020. Image Reporting PG Cert - Radiography - University of Derby [Internet]. Derby.ac.uk. 11. Birmingham City University. 2020. Radiography - Module / MSc / PgCert / PgDip - 2021/22 Entry [Internet]. Birmingham City University.

12. MacLellan K 2020. UK heralds end of 'cheap labor from Europe' with post-Brexit immigration system [Internet]. Reuters U.K.

13. Reuters Staff. 2020. UK to allow foreign students to stay for two years after graduation to find work [Internet]. U.S.

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